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Lab-created gems or synthetic gemstones, as its name implies, are made in a laboratory. Synthetic gemstones have the rarity of natural colored stones are less expensive than naturally mined stones. Because of the way they are made, synthetic stones may show subtle differences in form and color to help distinguish them from their natural counterparts. A synthetic gemstone is identical to a natural gemstone in almost every way. This includes the same basic crystal structure, refractive index, density, chemical composition, colors, and other features.

Since gemological the same tests are used for identification of natural stone and synthetic gems, sometimes it is even possible that a gemologist to be confused as whether or not a stone is natural or synthetic. Such stones can be done without color, or by the use of metal oxides in many colors, and therefore can be made to resemble many natural stones such as amethyst, diamond, spinel, emerald, opal and corundum (ruby and sapphire). Alexandrite.

Lapis, turquoise and coral produced by the French manufacturer is not true synthetic, Gilson, are similar to their natural counterparts, but because of their optical and physical properties differ from natural jewels. Gilson lapis, for example, is more porous and has a specific gravity lower.

Methods for making gems synthetic

The growth of fusion:

* The flame fusion or Verneuil Process
Originally developed (1902) by a chemical Frenchman, Auguste Verneuil, the process produces a ball (a mass of alumina with the same physical and chemical characteristics as corundum) from finely ground alumina (Al2O3) by means of an inverted torch trigger that opens into a ceramic muffle. With slight modifications, this method is used to produce the spinel, rutile and strontium titanate.

In the method for manufacturing Verneuil rubies, a glass rod with a "seed" is low in minerals melted and then return. Repeating this process again and again grows a large crystal at the end of a stick of melted minerals. The ruby can be separated and then cut and polished.

* Pull or Czochralski's technique
A crystal growing method of synthetic high melting point prepared by the Polish scientist Jan Czochralski, who discovered the method in 1916, while investigating the crystallization rates of metals. Czochralski and is named as Czochralski pulling technique. When a seed crystal decreased slightly until it is in contrast to the pure molten in the crucible and then slowly pulled up. The product shows the rod-like crystals. It is used to to rare earth garnets, lithium niobate, scheelite synthetic and synthetic alexandrite.

* Brigman-Technical Stockbarger
The method involves heating polycrystalline material in a container above its melting point and cooling slowly from one end where there is a seed crystal. Single crystal material progressively formed along the length of the container. The process can be conducted in a horizontal or vertical geometry.
Growth of the solution:

* Hydrothermal Method

Aquamarine and quartz crystals are grown in a solution in autoclaves, where the temperature and pressure are controlled to create the raw material called chips in the hottest part. Seed crystals in the cooler part on which the chips redeposits, synthetic quartz formation. This process can take 30 to 60 days, and is also used to grow amethyst, citrine, or rock crystal.

* Flux fusion method
Pioneer by chemist Edmond Fremy French, the melt flow technique is still used for emeralds. The ingredients in powder melts and fuses into a stream of solvent () in a crucible. Material should be kept to a very high temperature for several months before it is allowed to cool slowly.

* High temperature / pressure method:
A growth rate of the water solution at high temperature and pressure are known as hydrothermal technique. The growth of the solution is achieved by an increase saturation. As increasing amounts of added sugar to water, the sugar is dissolved until the solution is saturated and can not absorb more and then begin to re-crystallize. With cooling, crystallization will increase and decrease with heating. A seed crystal is often used for initiate the crystallization and to provide a home for the deposit to start. The crystal growth rates are a function of time, temperature and concentration. Hydrothermal techniques are used to make emerald, quartz, rock crystal and amethyst.

* Skull Melting process
This process was perfected in the USSR specifically for the crystallization of synthetic cubic zirconia, for use in optical electronics and laser equipment. Cubic zirconium oxide has a very high melting point and is a very reactive material. No container can hold this merger from the cubic zirconia has a melting point of 2750A ° C, and therefore a cold crucible or skull is used.

Imitation stones can be composed of any substance, like glass, rubber or strass, china, porcelain, acrylic and plastic. Ceramics are most common and least expensive simulators and are used as substitutes for many types of popular materials the jewel of turquoise, coral, jade, pearls. Imitation calculations are performed to simulate a particular gemstone, but do not have the same chemical, physical and optical properties of natural gemstones gemstone synthesis and therefore can be easily distinguished from natural and synthetic gemstones. Volcanic rock, a man-made substance, obsidian and volcanic ash, is a possible candidate for sapphire aquamarine and pale imitation. Some examples of stones Imitation is cubic zirconia, synthetic Moissanite (Diamond) and yttrium aluminum garnet which are diamond simulants. Since diamonds are so valuable and popular the impostors diamond market is huge, and many additional simulators such as cubic zirconia, GGG, YAG, strontium titanate, synthetic rutile, and moissanite is have created over the past 50 years. Other Emerald Doublet imitation stones, sheets of glass (Opal), imitation of lapis lazuli, Synthetic Forsterite (Tanzanite) Synthetic Forsterite (Peridot).

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http://www.valuablestones.com/imitation.htm

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